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Although Nantes was the primary residence of the 15th-century dukes of Brittany , Rennes became the provincial capital after the union of Brittany and France.
During the 17th century, after the establishment of the French colonial empire , Nantes gradually became the largest port in France and was responsible for nearly half of the 18th-century French Atlantic slave trade.
The French Revolution resulted in an economic decline, but Nantes developed robust industries after chiefly in shipbuilding and food processing. Deindustrialisation in the second half of the 20th century spurred the city to adopt a service economy.
It is the fourth-highest-ranking city in France, after Paris , Lyon and Marseille. Nantes is named after a tribe of Gaul , the Namnetes , who established a settlement between the end of the second century and the beginning of the first century BC on the north bank of the Loire near its confluence with the Erdre.
The first inhabitants of what is now Nantes settled during the Bronze Age , later than in the surrounding regions which have Neolithic monuments absent from Nantes.
Its history from the seventh century to the Roman conquest in the first century BC is poorly documented, and there is no evidence of a city in the area before the reign of Tiberius in the first century AD.
Ratiatum, founded under Augustus , developed more quickly than Nantes and was a major port in the region. Nantes began to grow when Ratiatum collapsed after the Germanic invasions.
Because tradesmen favoured inland roads rather than Atlantic routes,  Nantes never became a large city under Roman occupation. Although it lacked amenities such as a theatre or an amphitheatre , the city had sewers, public baths and a temple dedicated to Mars Mullo.
Christianity was introduced during the third century. The first local martyrs Donatian and Rogatian were executed in ,  and a cathedral was built during the fourth century.
Although many parts of Brittany experienced significant Breton immigration loosening ties to Rome , Nantes remained allied with the empire until its collapse in the fifth century.
Under Charlemagne in the eighth century the town was the capital of the Breton March , a buffer zone protecting the Carolingian Empire from Breton invasion.
The first governor of the Breton March was Roland , whose feats were mythologized in the body of literature known as the Matter of France.
Nominoe a Breton became the first duke of Brittany, seizing Nantes in Discord marked the first decades of Breton rule in Nantes as Breton lords fought among themselves, making the city vulnerable to Viking incursions.
The most spectacular Viking attack in Nantes occurred in , when Viking warriors killed the bishop but did not settle in the city at that time.
Feudalism took hold in France during the 10th and 11th centuries, and Nantes was the seat of a county founded in the ninth century. Until the beginning of the 13th century, it was the subject of succession crises which saw the town pass several times from the Dukes of Brittany to the counts of Anjou of the House of Plantagenet.
The Montforts, seeking emancipation from the suzerainty of the French kings, reinforced Breton institutions. They chose Nantes, the largest town in Brittany with a population of over 10, , as their main residence and made it the home of their council, their treasury and their chancery.
Many buildings were built or rebuilt including the cathedral and the castle , and the University of Nantes —the first in Brittany—was founded in In return for surrendering its independence, Brittany retained its privileges.
Rennes received most legal and administrative institutions, and Nantes kept a financial role with its Chamber of Accounts.
However, the edict did not reflect local opinion in the Catholic League stronghold. The local Protestant community did not number more than 1,, and Nantes was one of the last places to resist the authority of Protestant-raised Henry IV.
Coastal navigation and the export of locally produced goods salt, wine and fabrics dominated the local economy around Manufactured goods were more lucrative than raw materials during the 18th century.
There were about fifteen sugar refineries in the city around and nine cotton mills in The French Revolution initially received some support in Nantes, a bourgeois city rooted in private enterprise.
On 18 July , locals seized the Castle of the Dukes of Brittany in an imitation of the storming of the Bastille.
Nantes was an important Republican garrison on the Loire en route to England. Twelve thousand Republican soldiers resisted and the Battle of Nantes resulted in the death of Royalist leader Jacques Cathelineau.
After the Battle of Nantes, the National Convention which had founded the First French Republic decided to purge the city of its anti-revolutionary elements.
Nantes was seen by the convention as a corrupt merchant city; the local elite was less supportive of the French Revolution, since its growing centralisation reduced their influence.
Between 12, and 13, people including women and children were arrested, and 8, to 11, died of typhus or were executed by the guillotine , shooting or drowning.
The Drownings at Nantes were intended to kill large numbers of people simultaneously, and Carrier called the Loire "the national bathtub". The French Revolution was disastrous for the local economy.
Nantes never fully recovered its 18th-century wealth; the port handled 43, tons of goods in , down from , tons in They had embraced the Industrial Revolution , thanks to Parisian investments; Nantes lagged behind, struggling to find profitable activities.
Nostalgic for the pre-revolutionary golden age, the local elite had been suspicious of political and technological progress during the first half of the 19th century.
In , after much debate and opposition, Nantes was connected to Paris by the Tours—Saint-Nazaire railway. Nantes became a major industrial city during the second half of the 19th century with the aid of several families who invested in successful businesses.
The former, primarily the canning industry, included the biscuit manufacturer LU and the latter was represented by three shipyards which were among the largest in France.
These industries helped maintain port activity and facilitated agriculture, sugar imports, fertilizer production, machinery and metallurgy, which employed 12, people in Nantes and its surrounding area in Saint-Nazaire, primarily developed for goods to be transhipped before being sent to Nantes, also built rival shipyards.
Saint-Nazaire surpassed Nantes in port traffic for the first time in The canal, completed in , was abandoned in because of the efficient dredging of the Loire between and Sand siltation required dredging, which weakened the quays; one quay collapsed in Embankments were overcrowded with railways, roads and tramways.
Between and , most of the channels were filled in and their water diverted. Large thoroughfares replaced the channels, altering the urban landscape.
Feydeau and Gloriette Islands in the old town were attached to the north bank, and the other islands in the Loire were formed into the Isle of Nantes.
When the land reclamation was almost complete, Nantes was shaken by the air raids of the Second World War. They are remembered as "the 50 hostages" because the Germans initially planned to kill 50 people.
Allied raids killed 1, people and destroyed 2, buildings in Nantes, leaving a further 6, buildings unusable. The postwar years were a period of strikes and protests in Nantes.
The city developed a rich cultural life, advertising itself as a creative place near the ocean. Institutions and facilities such as its airport were re-branded as "Nantes Atlantique" to highlight this proximity.
Local authorities have commemorated the legacy of the slave trade, promoting dialogue with other cultures. Nantes is in north-western France, near the Atlantic Ocean and kilometres miles south-west of Paris.
Bordeaux , the other major metropolis of western France, is kilometres miles south. Land north of Nantes is dominated by bocage and dedicated to polyculture and animal husbandry , and the south is renowned for its Muscadet vineyards and market gardens.
The Loire is about 1, kilometres miles long and its estuary, beginning in Nantes, is 60 kilometres 37 miles in length.
In Nantes the Loire had divided into a number of channels, creating a dozen islands and sand ridges. Most of the islands were protected with levees during the modern era , and they disappeared in the s and s when the smallest waterways were filled in.
The Loire in Nantes now has only two branches, one on either side of the Isle of Nantes. The river is tidal in the city, and tides are observed about 30 kilometres 19 miles further east.
Nantes was at the point where the river current and the tides cancelled each other out, resulting in siltation and the formation of the original islands.
The city is at the confluence of two tributaries. These two rivers initially provided natural links with the hinterland. When the channels of the Loire were filled, the Erdre was diverted in central Nantes and its confluence with the Loire was moved further east.
The Erdre includes Versailles Island, which became a Japanese garden during the s. It was created in the 19th century with fill from construction of the Nantes-Brest canal.
Nantes is built on the Armorican Massif , a range of weathered mountains which may be considered the backbone of Brittany.
The mountains, stretching from the end of the Breton peninsula to the outskirts of the sedimentary Paris Basin , are composed of several parallel ridges of Ordovician and Cadomian rocks.
Nantes is where one of these ridges, the Sillon de Bretagne, meets the Loire. It passes through the western end of the old town, forming a series of cliffs above the quays.
The Sillon de Bretagne is composed of granite ; the rest of the region is a series of low plateaus covered with silt and clay , with mica schist and sediments found in lower areas.
Much of the old town and all of the Isle of Nantes consist of backfill. Cfb influenced by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean.
West winds produced by cyclonic depressions in the Atlantic dominate, and north and north-west winds are also common. Slight variations in elevation make fog common in valleys, and slopes oriented south and south-west have good insolation.
Summers are moderately warm, with an average temperature of Rain is abundant through the year, with an annual average of millimetres 32 inches. The climate in Nantes is suitable for growing a variety of plants, from temperate vegetables to exotic trees and flowers imported during the colonial era.
It has a historical centre with old monuments, administrative buildings and small shops, surrounded by 19th-century faubourgs surrounded by newer suburban houses and public housing.
The city centre has a medieval core corresponding to the former walled town and 18th-century extensions running west and east.
The northern extension, Marchix, was considered squalid and nearly disappeared during the 20th century. The old town did not extend south before the 19th century, since it would have meant building on the unsteady islands in the Loire.
The medieval core has narrow streets and a mixture of half-timbered buildings, more recent sandstone buildings, post- World War II reconstruction and modern redevelopment.
It is primarily a student neighbourhood, with many bars and small shops. The eastern extension behind Nantes Cathedral was traditionally inhabited by the aristocracy , and the larger western extension along the Loire was built for the bourgeoisie.
The other faubourgs were built along the main boulevards and the plateaus, turning the valleys into parks. Since the s, it has been subject to the conversion of former industrial areas into office space, housing and leisure facilities.
Local authorities intend to make it an extension of the city centre. Further development is also planned on the north bank along an axis linking the train station and the Loire.
Nantes has public parks, gardens and squares covering hectares acres. It has a large collection of exotic plants, including a year-old Magnolia grandiflora and the national collection of camellia.
Natural areas, an additional hectares acres , include the Petite Amazonie a Natura protected forest and several woods, meadows and marshes. The city adopted an ecological framework in to reduce greenhouse gases and promote energy transition.
The city is administered by a mayor and a council, elected every six years. The council has 65 councillors. The assembly was controlled by wealthy merchants and the Lord Lieutenant.
After the union of Brittany and France, the burghers petitioned the French king to give them a city council which would enhance their freedom; their request was granted by Francis II in The new council had a mayor, ten aldermen and a crown prosecutor.
The party has held a majority since , and Nantes has become a left-wing stronghold. Since Nantes has been divided into 11 neighbourhoods quartiers , each with an advisory committee and administrative agents.
City-council members are appointed to each quartier to consult with the local committees. The neighbourhood committees, existing primarily to facilitate dialogue between citizens and the local government, meet twice a year.
Like most French municipalities , Nantes is part of an intercommunal structure which combines the city with 24 smaller, neighbouring communes.
The council is currently overseen by Rolland. Local authorities began using official symbols in the 14th century, when the provost commissioned a seal on which the Duke of Brittany stood on a boat and protected Nantes with his sword.
The present coat of arms was first used in ; its ermines symbolise Brittany , and its green waves suggest the Loire. The coronet was replaced by a mural crown during the 18th century, and during the revolution a new emblem with a statue of Liberty replaced the coat of arms.
The original coat of arms was readopted in , and the Liberation Cross and the —45 War Cross were added in It disappeared during the revolution, and the city adopted its current motto—" Favet Neptunus eunti " "Neptune favours the traveller"  —in The black and white crosses are historic symbols of Brittany and France, respectively.
The administrative region of Brittany did not exist during the 19th and early 20th centuries, although its cultural heritage remained.
It has often been said that the separation of Nantes from the rest of Brittany was decided by Vichy France during the Second World War.
Pays de la Loire officials favour a union of Brittany with the Pays de la Loire, but Breton politicians oppose the incorporation of their region into a Greater West region.
Nantes has made nine international sister-city arrangements since Arrangements have been made with: The city has made agreements with other cities and regions, including Turin , Liverpool , Hamburg , Asturias and Quebec.
Nantes had , inhabitants in , the largest population in its history. Although it was the largest city in Brittany during the Middle Ages , it was smaller than three other north-western towns: Angers , Tours and Caen.
In it annexed the neighbouring communes of Doulon and Chantenay, gaining almost 30, inhabitants. Population growth was slower during the 20th century, remaining under , from the s to the s primarily because urban growth spread to surrounding communes.
Since the population of Nantes began to rise due to redevelopment,  and its urban area has continued to experience population growth. The Nantes metropolitan area had a population of , in , nearly doubling since the s.
Its population is projected to reach one million by , based on the fertility rate. The population of Nantes is younger than the national average, with People over age 60 account for Single-person households are Students generally come from within the region, and working people are often from Paris.
Nantes has long had ethnic minorities. Spanish, Portuguese and Italian communities were mentioned during the 16th century, and an Irish Jacobite community appeared a century later.
However, immigration has always been lower in Nantes than in other large French cities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Abdul Majeed Waris on loan from Porto. Gabriel Boschilia on loan from Monaco. Valentin Eysseric on loan from Fiorentina.Nantes is historically a Catholic city, with a cathedraltwo minor basilicasabout 40 churches and around 20 chapels. Look up The meadows casino free play Translations in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Since the population of Nantes began to rise due to basketball-europameisterschaft 2019,  and its urban area has eishockey karten köln to experience population growth. Further development is also planned on the north bank em russland england an axis linking the train station and the Loire. Public transport in Nantes is managed by Semitanalso known as "Tan". After the Battle of Nantes, the National Convention which had founded the First French Republic decided to purge the city of its anti-revolutionary elements. For a complete list of FC Nantes rtl 2 you app, see Category: The Loire in Nantes now has only two branches, one on either side of the Isle of Nantes. After the RenaissanceNantes developed west of its medieval core along new embankments. InNantes narrowly avoided relegation on the final day of the season by spiele 200 Metz nantes fc Prefectures of the regions of France. Piraultpp. Prefecture and commune in Pays de la Loire, France. Their primary countries of origin were Algeria Since Nantes has been divided into 11 neighbourhoods quartierseach with an advisory committee and administrative agents.